Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine established in 1929. In 1921 at the Kyiv Regional Department of Education a Physics research laboratory was organized, which in 1922 was transformed into the Kyiv Science-Research Department of Physics at the Kyiv Polytechnic Institute. On January 1, 1929, the Department of Physics was reorganized into the Science-Research Institute of Physics of the People’s Commissariat of Education of the USSR, which was reordered by NASU (National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine – Ukrainian: “Всеукраїнська академія наук”) in 1932 and was renamed into the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1936. The organizer and the first director of the Institute was O.H. Holdman, elected in 1929 as an Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the Department of Physics.
For outstanding scientific achievements scientists awarded the Lenin Institute, four USSR State Prize and 18 State Prize of Ukraine, as well as prizes NAS of Ukraine and international awards. Among the developments of the institute, which were introduced, it’s worth mentioning metal cryostats, bolometers, used in space studies that krio-surgical tools, lasers and receptors. In particular, for the needs of over than fifty industries, Industrial Research Institute of USSR until the early 70’s released the developed FESS high sensitivity based on silver sulfide.
For many decades the Institute has close business relationships with leading universities in Kyiv and other cities of Ukraine. At different times, professors of Kyiv University. Shevchenko was Davydov, VE Dyachenko, VE Lashkaryov, N.D.Morhulis, VI Liashenko, O.F.Nyemets, NV Pasichnyk, S.I.Pekar, OH Sitenko, KB Tolpyho. Today, professors and teachers of Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National Technical University (KPI), Kyiv Mohyla Academy and other universities of the capital is the leading scientists of the Institute. They created a new department, taught courses, postgraduate exercised.
The main objective of the Institute is to carry out fundamental and applied research aimed at obtaining new scientific knowledge in physics, promote scientific and technological, socio-economic and spiritual development of society.
In 2004, the Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine approved the following major research areas Research Institute:
- condensed matter physics, including the physics of soft matter;
- nanophysics and nanoelectronics;
- physics of lasers, nonlinear and singular optics, holography;
- surface physics, and plasma emission electronics.
As part of the approved areas of priority are:
- physics of nanostructures, including heterostructures in semiconductors, nanostructured liquid crystal nanoparticle solids;
- theoretical and experimental studies of quasiparticles (electrons, excitons, phonons, magnons, plasmons) and the process of their interaction with each other and with defects in condensed media;
- physics of liquid crystal and polymer environments;
- fundamental study of the interaction of laser radiation with matter and the development of scientific fundamentals of laser technology;
- study of adsorption and electronic phenomena and phase transitions on the surface of solids;
- study of ion beam methods and management;
- physics of biological systems.